By the early 1990's, Japan has developed and used SCC.
Self compacted concrete is highly engineered concrete
with much higher fluidity without segregation and is
capable of filling every corner of formwork under its self
Thus SCC eliminates the vibration for the compaction of
concrete without affecting its engineering properties.
As of the year 2000, SCC used for prefabricated
products (precast members) and ready mixed concrete
(cast-in-situ) in JAPAN, USA and later on INDIA etc.
DEVELOPMENT OF SCC
In 1983, the problem of the durability of the concrete structures
was a major topic of interest in Japan.
The creation of durable concrete structures requires adequate
compaction by skilled workers.
Solution for the achievement of durable concrete structures
independent of the quality construction work is the use of SCC.
The necessity of this type of concrete was proposed by Okamura in
Studies to develop SCC have been carried out by Ozawa and Melawi
at the university of Tokyo.
Present-day SCC can be classified as an advanced construction
FATHER OF SCC TECHNOLOGY
Developed Self compacting concrete in
1986 in JAPAN.
Currently President of Kochi University
of Technology .
CANMET/ACI AWARD for Outstanding
contributions in the development of SELF
COMPACTABLE HIGH PERFORMANCE
CONCRETE (1995) .
OKAMURA solved the issue of degrading quality of
concrete construction due to lack of compaction by the
employment of SCC which is independent of the quality of
CONSTITUENTS OF SCC
With regard to its composition, SCC consists of the
same components as conventionally vibrated
concrete, which are
Chemical Admixtures i.e. Super plasticizers and
Viscosity Modifying Agents
Mineral Admixtures i.e., Fly ash, Silica
Fume, GGBFS etc.
TYPICAL MIX PROPORTION
Typical range by
water to powder ratio
48-55% of total aggregate weight
PROPERTIES OF SCC
IN FRESH STATE, SCC HAVE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES-
Filling ability (excellent deformability)
easily at suitable speed into formwork
Passing ability (ability to pass reinforcement
without blocking) -passes through reinforcements
High resistance to segregation- the distribution of
aggregate particles remains homogeneous in both vertical and
Static segregation due to gravity, vertical direction
Dynamic segregation due to flow, horizontal direction
COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL
CONCRETE AND SCC
Self Compacting Concrete
Mechanism for achieving Self Compact
ability (Okamura & Ozawa)
mortar & concrete
of mortar &
MEASUREMENT OF SCC FLOW
IN FRESH STATE
Slump Flow & T50 test:
Slump flow test is used to find the filling ability of
The SCC sample is poured in to the slump cone then
the slump flow diameter is measured.
The flow time is measured & that is know as T50
The higher the slump flow value, the greater its
ability to fill formwork under its own weight.
The L-Box test is used to find the passing
ability of SCC.
The SCC sample is poured in to the L-Box
apparatus, now the plate is removed to allow
The L-box ratio is calculated as H2/ H1.
According to EFNARC , when the ratio of
h2 to h1 is larger than 0.8, self compacting
concrete has good passing ability.
V-FUNNEL TEST AND V-FUNNEL
TEST AT T5MINUTES:
The V-Funnel test is used to find the Segregation
Resistance of SCC.
The SCC sample is poured in to the V-Funnel apparatus,
now its allowed to flow by its weight.
The emptying time of V-Funnel is noted.
This test measured the ease of flow of the concrete,
shorter flow times indicate greater flow ability. After 5
minutes of setting, segregation of concrete will show a less
continuous flow with an increase in flow time.
TESTS ON HARDENED CONCRETE
Compressive Strength Test
Split Tensile Strength Test
Split cylinder test
Standard Beam test
Flexural Strength Test
Preparation of SCC specimens:
All the materials are placed in the mixer & mixed well
The sample is taken out and poured in to the moulds.
The moulds are socked in water & allowed for curing .
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR SCC IN FREE STATE
Test Results on Fresh Concrete and Acceptance Criteria for SCC
VS1: T500 ≤ 2
VF1: ≤ 8
VS2: T500 > 2
PA1: > 0.8
PA2: > 0.8
DISCUSSION ON TEST RESULTS
Based on the above experimental results, the observations are as follows:
Slump flow increases with the increase of water/cement ratio.
T500 time, V-funnel time, T5 time and U-box values are decreases with
the increase of w/c ratio.
value increases with the w/c ratio and Compressive
strength and flexural strengths are decreasing as
the w/c ratio increases.
Marginal increase in the compressive strength at 28 days of concrete as
the w/c ratio decreases.
Compressive strength and split tensile strength decreases at higher
rate for 7 days strength when compared to 28 days strength, whereas
it is also observed that flexural strength value decreases at higher rate
for 28 days strength when compared to 7 days strength.
ADVANTAGES OF SCC
Elimination of problems associated with vibration.
Improves working conditions and productivity
Greater freedom in design.
Less noise from vibrators and reduced danger from
hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).
Ease of placement results in cost savings through
reduced equipment and labour requirement.
Improves the quality, durability, and reliability of
concrete structures due to better compaction and
homogeneity of concrete.
Reduced wear and tear on forms from vibration.
DISADVANTAGES OF SCC
More precise measurement and monitoring
of the constituent materials.
Requires more trial batches at laboratory
as well as at ready-mixed concrete plants.
Costlier than conventional concrete based
on concrete material cost (exception to
Lack of globally accepted test standards
and mix designs
requirements on the
selection of materials .
SCC has high potential for greater acceptance and wider applications in highway
bridge construction in the all over world. An NCHRP Research Project has been
initiated to develop design and construction specifications to supplement the
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications.
Based on above results
conclusions are drawn-
Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) technology can save
time, cost, enhance quality, durability and Moreover it is a
Since the concrete is capable of self-consolidating and
reaching the difficult areas in moulds, manual variables in
terms of placing and compacting concrete is nil. This factor
ultimately yields defect less, better-quality concrete
Cast-in-place concrete construction in tight space and
congested reinforcement, such as, drilled shafts, columns and
earth retaining systems, can be accelerated by using SCC.
Brain Paulson. EFNARC, Secretary General, „Specifications and Guidelines for
Self-Compacting Concrete”, February 2002.
Nan Su, K.C. Hsu, H.W. Chai. A Simple mix design method for self-compacting
concrete, cement and concrete Research 2001.
International, Vol. 19, No.7, pp. 50-54, July 1997
4. M.S. Shetty. “Concrete technology (theory and practice), S. Chand & Company
IS 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (3rd
16. IS 516-1959 Method of test for strength of concrete
SK Singh “Self Compacting Concrete - A Paradigm Shift”, Journal of New Building
Materials & Construction World, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 164-180,September , 2009.